The number of people classified as obese, defined by the World Health Organization as having a body mass index ≥30, has been rising since the 1980s. Obesity is associated with comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The current treatment paradigm emphasizes lifestyle modifications, including diet and exercise; however this approach produces only modest weight loss for many patients. When lifestyle modifications fail, the current “gold standard” therapy for obesity is bariatric surgery, including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, duodenal switch, and placement of an adjustable gastric band. Though effective, bariatric surgery can have severe short- and long-term complications. To fill the major gap in invasiveness between lifestyle modification and surgery, researchers have been developing pharmacotherapies and minimally invasive endoscopic techniques to treat obesity. Recently, interventional radiologists developed a percutaneous transarterial catheter-directed therapy targeting the hormonal function of the stomach. This review describes the current standard obesity treatments (including diet, exercise, and surgery), as well as newer endoscopic bariatric procedures and pharmacotherapies to help patients lose weight. We present data from two ongoing human trials of a new interventional radiology procedure for weight loss, bariatric embolization.
- BEAT Obesity
- Bariatric surgery
- Weight loss
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging