Current Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease in Children: Growth, Cardiovascular, and Neurocognitive Risk Factors

Larry A. Greenbaum, Bradley A. Warady, Susan L. Furth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Linear growth and neurocognitive development are two of the most important differences between adults and children, in terms of clinical issues that must be addressed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Correction of metabolic acidosis, nutritional deficiency, and renal osteodystrophy improve linear growth, but many children require administration of growth hormone to achieve normal growth. A variety of neurocognitive deficits occur in children with CKD, although there has been an improvement in outcome via improved dialysis, correction of malnutrition, and decreased aluminum exposure. Although growth and neurocognitive development are delayed, cardiovascular complications are accelerated in children with CKD, and are reflected in a dramatic increase in cardiovascular mortality compared with healthy children. Other early cardiovascular complications in children with CKD include left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac dysfunction, and vascular calcifications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)425-434
Number of pages10
JournalSeminars in Nephrology
Volume29
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2009

Keywords

  • Chronic kidney failure
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • developmental disabilities
  • human growth hormone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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