The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque model of AIDS has provided a valuable system with which to investigate vaccine approaches for protection against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In particular, the ability of macaques persistently infected with attenuated infectious molecular clones of SIV to resist challenge with the pathogenic parental swarm has conclusively demonstrated that protective immunity can be achieved by immunization prior to exposure. The breadth of these protective responses and the immunological correlates of protection, however, have not been identified. In addition, vaccine studies have mainly employed lymphocyte- tropic strains of HIV-1 and SIV. Recent studies have implicated macrophage- tropic strains in the transmission of HIV-1 and have suggested that these virus strains should be examined in vaccine strategies. Macrophage-tropic viruses may confer additional advantages in the induction of protective immunity by replication in antigen-presenting cells. In this study, the immune response of rhesus macaques inoculated with an attenuated macrophage- tropic recombinant of SIV(mac)239 (SIV/17E-Cl) was evaluated with respect to protective immunity by heterologous challenge at various times after infection. Vigorous type-specific neutralizing-antibody responses restricted to SIV/17E-Cl were evident by 2 weeks postinfection. By 7 months, however, cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies emerged which neutralized not only SIV/17E-Cl but also the heterologous primary isolate SIV/DeltaB670. Challenge of SIV/17E-Cl-infected monkeys with SIV/DeltaB670 at various times postinfection demonstrated that protective responses were associated with the appearance of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, passive transfer of sera from SIV/17E-Cl-infected animals passively protected two of four naive recipients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science