The desire to improve and decentralize diagnostic platforms to facilitate highly precise and personalized medicine has motivated the development of a large number of electrochemical sensing technologies. Such a development has been facilitated by electrochemistry's unparalleled ability to achieve highly specific molecular measurements in complex biological fluids, without the need for expensive instrumentation. However, for decades, progress in the field had been constrained to systems that depended on the chemical reactivity of the analyte, obstructing the generalizability of such platforms beyond redox- or enzymatically active clinical targets. Thus, the pursuit of alternative, more general strategies, coupled to the timely technological advances in DNA sequencing, led to the development of DNA-based electrochemical sensors. The analytical value of these arises from the structural customizability of DNA and its ability to bind analytes ranging from ions and small molecules to whole proteins and cells. This versatility extends to interrogation methods, as DNA-based sensors work through a variety of detection schemes that can be probed via many electroanalytical techniques. As a reference for those experienced in the field, and to guide the unexperienced scientist, here we review the specific advantages of the electroanalytical methods most commonly used for the interrogation of DNA-based sensors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry