Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM): Updated review of findings, 1998-2002

Raymond B. Flannery, George S. Everly

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Critical incident stress management (CISM) represents a departure from earlier univariate crisis intervention strategies. CISM is a comprehensive, multicomponent, crisis intervention approach that includes preincident training, acute care interventions, and postincident response follow-up. The first review of this literature included published reports through 1997. This report covers the period from 1998-2002. A databased search revealed 20 papers of specific CISM programs or multiple interventions programs that are CISM-like in nature. These papers are reviewed and the strengths and weaknesses of the literature as a whole are presented; implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)319-329
Number of pages11
JournalAggression and Violent Behavior
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2004


  • Crisis intervention
  • Critical incident stress management
  • Debriefing
  • Emergency services

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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