Critical incident stress management (Cism:) A review of the literature

George S. Everly, Raymond B. Flannery, Jeffrey T. Mitchell

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Critical incident stress management (CISM) comprises a range of crisis intervention services that usually include precrisis training, individual crisis counseling, group debriefing, and postincident referral for primary and secondary victims. CISM is utilized to address the aftermath of violent acts, and has evolved from earlier crisis intervention and group psychological debriefing procedures. These approaches have been used throughout the world, and CISM is emerging as a standard of care. This article reviews the literature on crisis intervention, group debriefing, and CISM interventions within a methodological context. Strengths and weaknesses of the literature as a whole are presented. Implications of the findings are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23-40
Number of pages18
JournalAggression and Violent Behavior
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Crisis intervention
  • Critical incident stress debriefing
  • Critical incident stress management
  • Debriefing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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