Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV), a nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHF occurs sporadically in a number of countries in Asia, the Middle East, southeastern Europe and Africa. Patients may develop subclinical to severe hemorrhagic disease, with fatal outcomes in a substantial percentage of cases. Transmission usually occurs through contact with viremic livestock or patients or bites by infected ticks. The number of reported cases has increased in recent years, possibly due to global climatic change and human perturbations of biocenoses that may have led to the migration of tick vectors. There is currently no FDA-approved vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for CCHF. The classification of CCHFV as a WHO Risk Group IV pathogen and the lack of suitable animal models has caused progress in developing new prophylactic and therapeutic measures to be slow. Ribavirin is active against CCHFV in vitro, but its efficacy for human therapy has not been definitively demonstrated by clinical studies. CCHF-immunoglobulin is also in use, but without clear evidence of efficacy. In this article, we review the development of prophylaxis and therapy for CCHF and discuss future prospects for vaccine and drug development.
- Antiviral therapy
- Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
- Priority pathogen
- Viral hemorrhagic fever
ASJC Scopus subject areas