Crash Risk and Risky Driving Behavior Among Adolescents During Learner and Independent Driving Periods

Pnina Gershon, Johnathon P Ehsani, Chunming Zhu, Kellienne R. Sita, Sheila Klauer, Tom Dingus, Bruce Simons-Morton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: Novice adolescents' crash rates are highly elevated early in licensure, despite substantial practicedriving during the learner period. The objectives of this study were to examine the variability in measures of driving risk among adolescents during the learner and early independent driving periods and evaluate how risk varies by driving experience, gender, time of day, and road surface conditions. Methods: Objective driving data were collected in a naturalistic cohort study of 90 adolescent drivers with learner driving permit and 131 experienced adult drivers. Participants’ private vehicles were equipped with data acquisition system documenting driving kinematics, miles driven, and video recordings of the driver and the driving environment. Crash/near-crash (CNC) and kinematic risky driving (KRD) rates were calculated during the learner and early independent driving periods by gender (female/male), time of day (day/night), and road surface conditions (wet/dry) for adolescents and adults. Results: CNC and KRD rates of adolescents were similar to adult drivers during the learner period (CNC: incident rate ratio [IRR] = 1.67, confidence interval [CI] = .98–2.82 and KRD: IRR = 1.04, CI = .78–1.40, respectively), but dramatically higher in the first year of independent driving (CNC: IRR = 6.51, CI = 4.03–10.51 and KRD: IRR = 3.95, CI = 2.96–5.26, respectively), and particularly elevated the first 3months of licensure. Adolescent KRD rates were higher for males than females and invariably higher than adult rates during day and night, wet and dry conditions. Conclusions: While the learner driving period was relatively safe for adolescents, the transition to independent driving was typified by a dramatic increase in risk among adolescents that was higher than adult rates overall and under varying driving conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Adolescent Health
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

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Adolescent Behavior
Biomechanical Phenomena
Confidence Intervals
Licensure
Video Recording
Information Systems
Cohort Studies

Keywords

  • Adolescent drivers
  • Graduated driver licensing (GDL)
  • Learner driving period
  • Risky driving

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Crash Risk and Risky Driving Behavior Among Adolescents During Learner and Independent Driving Periods. / Gershon, Pnina; Ehsani, Johnathon P; Zhu, Chunming; Sita, Kellienne R.; Klauer, Sheila; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce.

In: Journal of Adolescent Health, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gershon, Pnina ; Ehsani, Johnathon P ; Zhu, Chunming ; Sita, Kellienne R. ; Klauer, Sheila ; Dingus, Tom ; Simons-Morton, Bruce. / Crash Risk and Risky Driving Behavior Among Adolescents During Learner and Independent Driving Periods. In: Journal of Adolescent Health. 2018.
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abstract = "Purpose: Novice adolescents' crash rates are highly elevated early in licensure, despite substantial practicedriving during the learner period. The objectives of this study were to examine the variability in measures of driving risk among adolescents during the learner and early independent driving periods and evaluate how risk varies by driving experience, gender, time of day, and road surface conditions. Methods: Objective driving data were collected in a naturalistic cohort study of 90 adolescent drivers with learner driving permit and 131 experienced adult drivers. Participants’ private vehicles were equipped with data acquisition system documenting driving kinematics, miles driven, and video recordings of the driver and the driving environment. Crash/near-crash (CNC) and kinematic risky driving (KRD) rates were calculated during the learner and early independent driving periods by gender (female/male), time of day (day/night), and road surface conditions (wet/dry) for adolescents and adults. Results: CNC and KRD rates of adolescents were similar to adult drivers during the learner period (CNC: incident rate ratio [IRR] = 1.67, confidence interval [CI] = .98–2.82 and KRD: IRR = 1.04, CI = .78–1.40, respectively), but dramatically higher in the first year of independent driving (CNC: IRR = 6.51, CI = 4.03–10.51 and KRD: IRR = 3.95, CI = 2.96–5.26, respectively), and particularly elevated the first 3months of licensure. Adolescent KRD rates were higher for males than females and invariably higher than adult rates during day and night, wet and dry conditions. Conclusions: While the learner driving period was relatively safe for adolescents, the transition to independent driving was typified by a dramatic increase in risk among adolescents that was higher than adult rates overall and under varying driving conditions.",
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AU - Gershon, Pnina

AU - Ehsani, Johnathon P

AU - Zhu, Chunming

AU - Sita, Kellienne R.

AU - Klauer, Sheila

AU - Dingus, Tom

AU - Simons-Morton, Bruce

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N2 - Purpose: Novice adolescents' crash rates are highly elevated early in licensure, despite substantial practicedriving during the learner period. The objectives of this study were to examine the variability in measures of driving risk among adolescents during the learner and early independent driving periods and evaluate how risk varies by driving experience, gender, time of day, and road surface conditions. Methods: Objective driving data were collected in a naturalistic cohort study of 90 adolescent drivers with learner driving permit and 131 experienced adult drivers. Participants’ private vehicles were equipped with data acquisition system documenting driving kinematics, miles driven, and video recordings of the driver and the driving environment. Crash/near-crash (CNC) and kinematic risky driving (KRD) rates were calculated during the learner and early independent driving periods by gender (female/male), time of day (day/night), and road surface conditions (wet/dry) for adolescents and adults. Results: CNC and KRD rates of adolescents were similar to adult drivers during the learner period (CNC: incident rate ratio [IRR] = 1.67, confidence interval [CI] = .98–2.82 and KRD: IRR = 1.04, CI = .78–1.40, respectively), but dramatically higher in the first year of independent driving (CNC: IRR = 6.51, CI = 4.03–10.51 and KRD: IRR = 3.95, CI = 2.96–5.26, respectively), and particularly elevated the first 3months of licensure. Adolescent KRD rates were higher for males than females and invariably higher than adult rates during day and night, wet and dry conditions. Conclusions: While the learner driving period was relatively safe for adolescents, the transition to independent driving was typified by a dramatic increase in risk among adolescents that was higher than adult rates overall and under varying driving conditions.

AB - Purpose: Novice adolescents' crash rates are highly elevated early in licensure, despite substantial practicedriving during the learner period. The objectives of this study were to examine the variability in measures of driving risk among adolescents during the learner and early independent driving periods and evaluate how risk varies by driving experience, gender, time of day, and road surface conditions. Methods: Objective driving data were collected in a naturalistic cohort study of 90 adolescent drivers with learner driving permit and 131 experienced adult drivers. Participants’ private vehicles were equipped with data acquisition system documenting driving kinematics, miles driven, and video recordings of the driver and the driving environment. Crash/near-crash (CNC) and kinematic risky driving (KRD) rates were calculated during the learner and early independent driving periods by gender (female/male), time of day (day/night), and road surface conditions (wet/dry) for adolescents and adults. Results: CNC and KRD rates of adolescents were similar to adult drivers during the learner period (CNC: incident rate ratio [IRR] = 1.67, confidence interval [CI] = .98–2.82 and KRD: IRR = 1.04, CI = .78–1.40, respectively), but dramatically higher in the first year of independent driving (CNC: IRR = 6.51, CI = 4.03–10.51 and KRD: IRR = 3.95, CI = 2.96–5.26, respectively), and particularly elevated the first 3months of licensure. Adolescent KRD rates were higher for males than females and invariably higher than adult rates during day and night, wet and dry conditions. Conclusions: While the learner driving period was relatively safe for adolescents, the transition to independent driving was typified by a dramatic increase in risk among adolescents that was higher than adult rates overall and under varying driving conditions.

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KW - Graduated driver licensing (GDL)

KW - Learner driving period

KW - Risky driving

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