BACKGROUND: Endoscopic suturectomy and helmeting represents a successful first-line surgical treatment for bilateral coronal craniosynostosis. Its effect on cranial morphology has not been previously described. METHODS: Patients were identified who had bilateral coronal craniosynostosis treated with endoscopic suturectomy and postoperative helmeting at Boston Children's Hospital between 2005 and 2013 and who underwent preoperative and postoperative computed tomography. Two normative patient populations were identified from our trauma registry with computed tomographic scans completed at the same age as our pretreatment and posttreatment scans. Craniometric indices were used to quantify the effect of treatment. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were identified who underwent bilateral coronal suturectomy. Twelve patients had preoperative and postoperative computed tomographic studies. Eight patients (66.7 percent) were syndromic. The average ages for preoperative and postoperative computed tomographic scan were 1.1 months (range, 0.03 to 2.6 months) and 19.6 months (range, 10.8 to 37.5 months). Thirteen patients with an average age of 1.1 months (range, 0.5 to 1.6 months) were identified as a preoperative control group. Fourteen patients with an average age of 18.5 months (range, 15.5 to 22.9 months) were identified as a postoperative control group. The anterior cranial height stabilized with treatment and the anterior cranial base length increased. The anterior cranial height-to-anterior cranial base length ratio significantly decreased with treatment (p = 0.128). Frontal bossing normalized with endoscopic suturectomy (craniosynostosis versus control: preoperatively, p = 0.001; postoperatively, p = 0.8). Cephalic indices also normalized with treatment (craniosynostosis versus control: preoperatively, p = 0.02; postoperatively, p = 0.13). No cases of hydrocephalus were observed. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic suturectomy and helmeting improves anterior turricephaly and corrects frontal bossing and brachycephaly in patients with bilateral coronal craniosynostosis. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.
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