Country-of-Origin Labeling Prior to and at the Point of Purchase: An Exploration of the Information Environment in Baltimore City Grocery Stores

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The country-of-origin labeling (COOL) law requires United States grocers to indicate the origin and procurement method (farm-raised or wild-caught) for seafood. This study explored the presentation of COOL on fresh, frozen, packaged, and unpackaged seafood in Baltimore City grocery stores. Eight stores were visited bi-monthly to photograph seafood labels, and circulars were collected weekly from fourteen stores over three months. Ninety-six percent of products were labeled correctly. Forty-eight percent of advertisements included COOL. While in-store labels did not highlight COOL, advertising featured references to domestic and wild-caught seafood, signaling to customers that these are high-value product qualities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)58-80
Number of pages23
JournalEcology of Food and Nutrition
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014



  • food labeling
  • food marketing
  • seafood

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science
  • Ecology

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