In an attempt to understand the mechanisms of cell injury in the inflammatory myopathies, we analyzed the expression of costimulatory molecules, CTLA4, CD28, CD86, CD40, and CD154 as well as HLA class I, HLA class II, and ICAM-I in normal muscle and in muscle biopsies from patients with polymyositis (PM) or dermatomyositis (DM). By immunohistochemical staining, DM and PM biopsies showed the presence of CTLA4, CD28, CD86, and CD40 on inflammatory cells. More strikingly, however, low levels of CTLA4 and CD28 were observed on muscle cells. The expression of CTLA4 and CD28 on nonlymphoid cells has not been previously reported. These unexpected findings were confirmed in cultured normal human myoblasts: various proinflammatory cytokines induced the expression of CTLA4 and CD28 on normal human muscle cells. The sequences of the cDNAs were found to be identical to the sequences for these molecules in T cells. The data suggest a novel complexity in the network of cellular interactions between the infiltrated immune cells and the muscle cells in which the normal relationship between infiltrating inflammatory cells and target tissue is under a previously unrecognized set of controls.
- Costimulatory molecules
- Human skeletal muscle cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine