Cost-effectiveness of rapid susceptibility testing against second-line drugs for tuberculosis

David Wesley Dowdy, A. Van'T Hoog, Maunank Shah, F. Cobelens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against second-line tuberculosis drugs (SLDs) is essential for improving outcomes among multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) cases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of rapid DST for SLDs. DESIGN: We constructed a decision analysis model of Xpert® MTB/RIF-based TB diagnosis in East and South-East Asia to compare culture-based DST vs. a hypothetical rapid SLD DST system for specimens resistant to rifampin. Our primary outcomes were the effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness of a rapid SLD DST assay relative to culture-based DST. RESULTS: For rapid SLD DST to be more effective than culture-based DST, treating individuals with pre-XDR/XDR-TB with a standardized MDR-TB regimen while awaiting culture-based DST must incur at least 30% excess XDR-TB mortality (100% = treatment with first-line drugs); rapid SLD DST should attain an aggregate sensitivity and specificity for all pre-XDR/XDR mutations of 88% and 96%, respectively. The unit cost of the rapid SLD DST assay must approach that of culture to achieve common thresholds for cost-effectiveness in low-income countries. CONCLUSION: Rapid SLD DST has the potential to be cost-effective, but must meet stringent criteria for accuracy and costs, and requires that standardized second-line treatment for pre-XDR/XDR-TB incur substantial excess mortality before the return of culture results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Volume18
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2014

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Cost-Benefit Analysis
Tuberculosis
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
Costs and Cost Analysis
Essential Drugs
Far East
Decision Support Techniques
Mortality
Rifampin

Keywords

  • Diagnostic methods and procedures
  • Drug resistance
  • Economic models
  • Tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "Cost-effectiveness of rapid susceptibility testing against second-line drugs for tuberculosis",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against second-line tuberculosis drugs (SLDs) is essential for improving outcomes among multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) cases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of rapid DST for SLDs. DESIGN: We constructed a decision analysis model of Xpert{\circledR} MTB/RIF-based TB diagnosis in East and South-East Asia to compare culture-based DST vs. a hypothetical rapid SLD DST system for specimens resistant to rifampin. Our primary outcomes were the effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness of a rapid SLD DST assay relative to culture-based DST. RESULTS: For rapid SLD DST to be more effective than culture-based DST, treating individuals with pre-XDR/XDR-TB with a standardized MDR-TB regimen while awaiting culture-based DST must incur at least 30{\%} excess XDR-TB mortality (100{\%} = treatment with first-line drugs); rapid SLD DST should attain an aggregate sensitivity and specificity for all pre-XDR/XDR mutations of 88{\%} and 96{\%}, respectively. The unit cost of the rapid SLD DST assay must approach that of culture to achieve common thresholds for cost-effectiveness in low-income countries. CONCLUSION: Rapid SLD DST has the potential to be cost-effective, but must meet stringent criteria for accuracy and costs, and requires that standardized second-line treatment for pre-XDR/XDR-TB incur substantial excess mortality before the return of culture results.",
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AU - Dowdy, David Wesley

AU - Van'T Hoog, A.

AU - Shah, Maunank

AU - Cobelens, F.

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against second-line tuberculosis drugs (SLDs) is essential for improving outcomes among multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) cases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of rapid DST for SLDs. DESIGN: We constructed a decision analysis model of Xpert® MTB/RIF-based TB diagnosis in East and South-East Asia to compare culture-based DST vs. a hypothetical rapid SLD DST system for specimens resistant to rifampin. Our primary outcomes were the effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness of a rapid SLD DST assay relative to culture-based DST. RESULTS: For rapid SLD DST to be more effective than culture-based DST, treating individuals with pre-XDR/XDR-TB with a standardized MDR-TB regimen while awaiting culture-based DST must incur at least 30% excess XDR-TB mortality (100% = treatment with first-line drugs); rapid SLD DST should attain an aggregate sensitivity and specificity for all pre-XDR/XDR mutations of 88% and 96%, respectively. The unit cost of the rapid SLD DST assay must approach that of culture to achieve common thresholds for cost-effectiveness in low-income countries. CONCLUSION: Rapid SLD DST has the potential to be cost-effective, but must meet stringent criteria for accuracy and costs, and requires that standardized second-line treatment for pre-XDR/XDR-TB incur substantial excess mortality before the return of culture results.

AB - BACKGROUND: Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against second-line tuberculosis drugs (SLDs) is essential for improving outcomes among multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) cases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of rapid DST for SLDs. DESIGN: We constructed a decision analysis model of Xpert® MTB/RIF-based TB diagnosis in East and South-East Asia to compare culture-based DST vs. a hypothetical rapid SLD DST system for specimens resistant to rifampin. Our primary outcomes were the effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness of a rapid SLD DST assay relative to culture-based DST. RESULTS: For rapid SLD DST to be more effective than culture-based DST, treating individuals with pre-XDR/XDR-TB with a standardized MDR-TB regimen while awaiting culture-based DST must incur at least 30% excess XDR-TB mortality (100% = treatment with first-line drugs); rapid SLD DST should attain an aggregate sensitivity and specificity for all pre-XDR/XDR mutations of 88% and 96%, respectively. The unit cost of the rapid SLD DST assay must approach that of culture to achieve common thresholds for cost-effectiveness in low-income countries. CONCLUSION: Rapid SLD DST has the potential to be cost-effective, but must meet stringent criteria for accuracy and costs, and requires that standardized second-line treatment for pre-XDR/XDR-TB incur substantial excess mortality before the return of culture results.

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