Aims: To conduct a second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2™) study, examining the experiences of family members caring for adults with diabetes in order to identify correlates of family member psychological outcomes (generic psychological well-being, perceived quality of life, and diabetes-related burden, impact and distress). Methods: A total of 2057 family members living with a person with diabetes and involved in their care participated in an online, telephone or in-person survey. Samples of 120 respondents were recruited in each of 17 countries. Significant (P < 0.05) correlates of psychological outcomes were identified by multi-level multiple regression. Results: Outcomes were worse for family members not working because of diabetes or those who had other competing obligations. Outcomes were worse if the person with diabetes was not a partner or parent, used injected diabetes medication, or had more frequent hypoglycaemia. Outcomes were worse for family members who believed that diabetes was more severe, were more involved in diabetes care, had more conflict over diabetes care or were frustrated about not knowing how to help the person with diabetes. Outcomes were better for those who had greater support from others and felt they found good ways to help the person with diabetes. There were significant differences in outcomes among countries before and after adjustment for individual characteristics, and correlates of outcomes varied by country. Conclusions: Several modifiable risk and protective factors for family member psychological outcomes were identified in this study. Diabetes education and social support were associated with improved outcomes, especially if they were helpful in supporting people with diabetes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism