Correlates of Non-fatal, Opioid Overdose among Women Who Use Opioids in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Haneefa T. Saleem, Samuel Likindikoki, Bareng A.S. Nonyane, Iddi Haruna Nkya, Leanne Zhang, Jessie Mbwambo, Carl Latkin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: As opioid overdoses and deaths increase globally, little is known about these dimensions in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we explore factors associated with opioid overdose experiences among a sample of women who use opioids in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 200 women who use opioids in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, recruited via respondent-driven sampling. We fitted unadjusted and adjusted log-binomial regression models with robust standard errors to examine associations between participant characteristics and reporting ever had an opioid overdose in terms of prevalence ratios. Results: Thirty-four percent (n = 68) of participants reported having ever had an opioid overdose. In the final adjusted model, having ever attempted to stop using heroin (adj. PR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.01-2.12), sleeping outside in the past 6 months (adj. PR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.29-2.91), injecting drugs (adj. PR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.19-2.66), alcohol use (adj. PR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.09-2.23), and having moderately severe to severe depression (adj. PR = 3.10, 95% CI: 1.07-8.97) were all found to be significantly associated with having ever had an opioid overdose. Conclusions: We demonstrate factors associated with opioid overdose among women who use drugs in Tanzania that may not be addressed with injection-focused harm reduction efforts. Our findings suggest the need for overdose surveillance efforts and further work to characterize overdose risks in this context in order to design relevant, targeted interventions to prevent opioid overdose in sub-Saharan Africa.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number108419
JournalDrug and alcohol dependence
Volume218
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021

Keywords

  • Africa
  • Opioids
  • Overdose
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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