Background: Premenopausal women have fewer cardiovascular disease (CVD) events than postmenopausal women and age-matched men, but the reasons are not fully understood. Coronary endothelial function (CEF), a barometer of coronary vascular health, promises important insights into age and sex differences in atherosclerotic CVD risk, but has not been well characterized in healthy individuals because of the invasive nature of conventional CEF measurements. Recently developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods were used to quantify CEF (coronary area and flow changes in response to isometric handgrip exercise (IHE), an endothelial-dependent stressor) to test the hypothesis that healthy women have better CEF compared to men particularly at a younger age. Methods: The study participants were 50 healthy women and men with no history of coronary artery disease (CAD) or traditional CV risk factors and Agatston coronary calcium score (on prior CT) <10 for those 50 years. Coronary cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements and flow-velocity encoded images (CBF) were obtained at baseline and during continuous IHE using 3T breath-hold cine MRI-IHE. CEF (%change in CSA and CBF with IHE) comparisons were made according to age and sex, and all women 50 years were post-menopausal. Results: In the overall population, there were no differences in CEF between men and women. However, when stratified by age and sex the mean changes in CSA and CBF during IHE were higher in younger premenopausal women than older postmenopausal women (%CSA: 15.2 ±10.6% vs. 7.0±6.8%, p = 0.03 and %CBF: 59.0±37.0% vs. 30.5±24.5% p = 0.02). CBF change was also nearly two-fold better in premenopausal women than age-matched men (59.0±37.0% vs. 33.6±12.3%, p = 0.03). Conclusions: Premenopausal women have nearly two-fold better mean CEF compared to postmenopausal women. CEF, measured by CBF change is also better in premenopausal women than age-matched men but there are no sex differences in CEF after menopause. Fundamental age and sex differences in CEF exist and may contribute to differences in the development and clinical manifestations of atherosclerotic CVD, and guide future trials targeting sex-specific mechanisms of atherogenesis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)