Coronal computed tomography (CT) scans are currently the optimal study to display the normal and abnormal anatomy in children with chronic and recurrent acute sinusitis after failure of medical therapy. To assess the extent and distribution of disease as well as associated anatomic abnormalities in this pediatric population, 74 coronal CT scans of children with continued symptoms of sinusitis after failure of extensive medical therapy were reviewed retrospectively. Twelve children with cystic fibrosis showed the characteristic features of medial displacement of the lateral nasal wall in the middle meatus and uncinate process demineralization, creating the appearance of a maxillary sinus mucocele. Nine of these 12 children had increased attenuation in the maxillary sinus on soft-tissue windows. In the remaining 62 children, a significantly greater frequency of disease, when compared with that reported for adults, was seen in the maxillary, anterior ethmoid, posterior ethmoid, and frontal sinuses. Children with asthma (n = 33) had more extensive disease. Bony anatomic abnormalities were similar to those reported for adults, except for a lower incidence of septal deformity.
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