The rapid activation and feedback regulation of many G protein signaling cascades raises the possibility that the critical signaling proteins may be tightly coupled. Previous studies show that the PDZ domain containing protein INAD, which functions in Drosophila vision, coordinates a signaling complex by binding directly to the light-sensitive ion channel, TRP, and to phospholipase C (PLC). The INAD signaling complex also includes rhodopsin, protein kinase C (PKC), and calmodulin, though it is not known whether these proteins bind to INAD. In the current work, we show that rhodopsin, calmodulin, and PKC associate with the signaling complex by direct binding to INAD. We also found that a second ion channel, TRPL, bound to INAD. Thus, most of the proteins involved directly in phototransduction appear to bind to INAD. Furthermore, we found that INAD formed homopolymers and the homomultimerization occurred through two PDZ domains. Thus, we propose that the INAD supramolecular complex is a higher order signaling web consisting of an extended network of INAD molecules through which a G protein-coupled cascade is tethered.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology