Controversies in Contemporary Facial Reanimation

Leslie Kim, Patrick J. Byrne

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Facial palsy is a devastating condition with profound functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial implications. Although the complexity of facial expression and intricate synergy of facial mimetic muscles are difficult to restore, the goal of management is to reestablish facial symmetry and movement. Facial reanimation surgery requires an individualized treatment approach based on the cause, pattern, and duration of facial palsy while considering patient age, comorbidities, motivation, and goals. Contemporary reconstructive options include a spectrum of static and dynamic procedures. Controversies in the evaluation of patients with facial palsy, timing of intervention, and management decisions for dynamic smile reanimation are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)275-297
Number of pages23
JournalFacial plastic surgery clinics of North America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016


  • Dynamic reanimation
  • Facial palsy
  • Facial paralysis
  • Facial reanimation
  • Free gracilis muscle transfer
  • Nerve transfers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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