Tight coupling of reproduction to environmental factors and physiological status is key to long-term species survival. In particular, highly conserved pathways modulate germline stem cell lineages according to nutrient availability. This chapter focuses on recent in vivo studies in genetic model organisms that shed light on how diet-dependent signals control the proliferation, maintenance, and survival of adult germline stem cells and their progeny. These signaling pathways can operate intrinsically in the germ line, modulate the niche, or act through intermediate organs to influence stem cells and their differentiating progeny. In addition to illustrating the extent of dietary regulation of reproduction, findings from these studies have implications for fertility during aging or disease states.