Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to assessment of brain connectivity and networks

Mark Hallett, Riccardo Di Iorio, Paolo Maria Rossini, Jung E. Park, Robert Chen, Pablo Celnik, Antonio P. Strafella, Hideyuki Matsumoto, Yoshikazu Ugawa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The goal of this review is to show how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques can make a contribution to the study of brain networks. Brain networks are fundamental in understanding how the brain operates. Effects on remote areas can be directly observed or identified after a period of stimulation, and each section of this review will discuss one method. EEG analyzed following TMS is called TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). A conditioning TMS can influence the effect of a test TMS given over the motor cortex. A disynaptic connection can be tested also by assessing the effect of a pre-conditioning stimulus on the conditioning-test pair. Basal ganglia-cortical relationships can be assessed using electrodes placed in the process of deep brain stimulation therapy. Cerebellar-cortical relationships can be determined using TMS over the cerebellum. Remote effects of TMS on the brain can be found as well using neuroimaging, including both positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The methods complement each other since they give different views of brain networks, and it is often valuable to use more than one technique to achieve converging evidence. The final product of this type of work is to show how information is processed and transmitted in the brain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2125-2139
Number of pages15
JournalClinical Neurophysiology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2017


  • Basal ganglia
  • Brain network
  • Cerebellum
  • Connectome
  • EEG
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • Positron emission tomography
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sensory Systems
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)


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