Contribution of moxifloxacin or levofloxacin in second-line regimens with or without continuation of pyrazinamide in murine tuberculosis

Zahoor Ahmad, Sandeep Tyagi, Austin Minkowski, Charles A. Peloquin, Jacques H. Grosset, Eric L. Nuermberger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Rationale: High-dose levofloxacin (L) (1,000 mg) was as active as moxifloxacin (M) (400 mg) in an early bactericidal activity trial, suggesting these fluoroquinolones could be used interchangeably. Whether pyrazinamide (Z) contributes sterilizing activity beyond the first 2 months in fluoroquinolone-containing second-line regimens remains unknown. Objectives:Wecomparedthe efficacy ofMandhigh-dose L alone or in combination with ethionamide (Et), amikacin (A), and Z given for 2 or 7 months. Methods:Apharmacokinetic studywas performed to determine the L dose equivalent to 1,000 mg in humans. Treatment started 2 weeks after aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Mice received M or L alone or in combination with 2 months of EtZA followed by 5 months of Et or EtZ. Measurements and Main Results: After 2 months of treatment, lung colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were similar in mice receiving either fluoroquinolone alone, but, after 4 and 5 months, CFU counts were2 log10 lower in mice receivingM. Mice receiving2MEtZA/3MEt and2LEtZA/3LEt had1.0 and2.7 log10 lung CFUs, respectively.When Z was given throughout, both regimens rendered mice culture negative by 5 months, and most mice did not relapse after 7 months of treatment, with fewer relapses observed in theMgroup after 6 and 7 months of treatment. Conclusions: In murine tuberculosis, M had superior efficacy compared with L despite lower serum drug exposures and may remain the fluoroquinolone of choice for second-line regimens. Z contributed substantial sterilizing activity beyond 2 months in fluoroquinolonecontaining second-line regimens, largely compensating for L's weaker activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)97-102
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
Volume188
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2013

Keywords

  • Levofloxacin
  • MDR-TB
  • Mouse model
  • Moxifloxacin
  • Pharmacokinetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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