Background: Myocardial infarcts are routinely detected by nuclear imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging. A newly developed technique for infarct detection based on contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has higher spatial resolution than SPECT. We postulated that this technique would detect infarcts missed by SPECT. Methods: We did contrast-enhanced CMR and SPECT examinations in 91 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. All CMR and SPECT images were scored, using a 14-segment model, for the presence, location, and spatial extent of infarction. To compare each imaging modality to a gold standard, we also acquired contrast-enhanced CMR and SPECT images in 12 dogs with, and three dogs without, myocardial infarction as defined by histochemical staining. Findings: In animals, contrast-enhanced CMR and SPECT detected all segments with nearly transmural infarction (>75% transmural extent of the left-ventricular wall). CMR also identified 100 of the 109 segments (92%) with subendocardial infarction (<50% transmural extent of the left-ventricular wall), whereas SPECT identified only 31 (28%). SPECT and CMR showed high specificity for the detection of infarction (97% and 98%, respectively). In patients, all segments with nearly transmural infarction, as defined by contrast-enhanced CMR, were detected by SPECT. However, of the 181 segments with subendocardial infarction, 85 (47%) were not detected by SPECT. On a per patient basis, six (13%) individuals with subendocardial infarcts visible by CMR had no evidence of infarction by SPECT. Interpretation: SPECT and CMR detect transmural myocardial infarcts at similar rates. However, CMR systematically detects subendocardial infarcts that are missed by SPECT.
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