Background: Hypogonadism, or low testosterone, is a common disorder. There are currently no patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments designed to comprehensively evaluate the symptoms of hypogonadism and to detect changes in these symptoms in response to treatment. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a PRO instrument, the Hypogonadism Impact of Symptoms Questionnaire (HIS-Q) and to assess its content validity. Methods: A literature review, expert clinician input, and qualitative concept elicitation with 39 male hypogonadism patients (four focus groups: n = 25; individual interviews: n = 14; mean age 52.3 ± 14.3 years) from the USA were used to develop the draft HIS-Q. Subsequent cognitive interviews (n = 29; mean age 51.5 ± 15.4 years) were used to evaluate content validity. Results: Emergent discussion with participants yielded symptoms within the sexual, physical, energy, sleep, cognition, and mood domains. Low libido and tiredness were most commonly reported. The initial version of the HIS-Q includes 53 items that were consistently understood by the participants, who found the instrument to be relevant to their experiences with hypogonadism and comprehensive in the content coverage of symptoms. Conclusion: The HIS-Q is a comprehensive PRO measure of hypogonadism symptom severity in males. Its design elements, including the response options and recall period, were suitable, and content validity was confirmed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Nursing (miscellaneous)