Contemporary considerations in the management and treatment of lower pole stones

Ridwan Alam, Brian R. Matlaga, Ayman Alam, Jared S. Winoker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The presence of lower pole stones poses a unique challenge due to the anatomical considerations involved in their management and treatment. Considerable research has been performed to determine the optimal strategy when faced with this highly relevant clinical scenario. Standard options for management include observation, shock wave lithotripsy, retrograde intrarenal surgery, or percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Indeed, each approach confers a distinct set of risks and benefits, which must be placed into the context of patient preference and expected outcomes. The current state of practice reflects a combination of lessons learned from managing calculi not only in the lower pole, but also from other locations within the kidney as well.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)957-968
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Braz J Urol
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Calculi
  • Review Literature as Topic
  • Therapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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