Considerations in the diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease

Joyce E. Yu, Antoine E. Azar, Hey J. Chong, Artemio M. Jongco, Benjamin T. Prince

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency that is caused by defects in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. The disease presents in most patients initially with infection, especially of the lymph nodes, lung, liver, bone, and skin. Patients with CGD are susceptible to a narrow spectrum of pathogens, and Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Serratia marcescens, Nocardia species, and Aspergillus species are the most common organisms implicated in North America. Granuloma formation, most frequently in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems, is a common complication of CGD and can be seen even before diagnosis. An increased incidence of autoimmune disease has also been described in patients with CGD and X-linked female carriers. In patients who present with signs and symptoms consistent with CGD, a flow cytometric dihydrorhodamine neutrophil respiratory burst assay is a quick and cost-effective way to evaluate NADPH oxidase function. The purpose of this review is to highlight considerations for and challenges in the diagnosis of CGD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S6-S11
JournalJournal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
StatePublished - May 9 2018


  • Chronic granulomatous disease
  • Dihydrorhodamine assay
  • Neutrophil oxidative burst
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidative complex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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