To determine the incidence of renal abnormalities among infants exposed to cocaine in utero, we performed ultrasound studies of the genitourinary tract in 100 consecutive infants admitted to the full-term nursery whose mothers had a history of cocaine use during pregnancy and/or a maternal toxicology screen was positive for cocaine. Mean gestational age of the newborns was 38.4 ± 2.1 weeks. Mean birth weight was 2,846 ± 561 gm.; 26% of the patients were less than 2,500 gm. and 18% were small for gestational age. Symptoms of drug withdrawal were present in 47 patients. Two newborns had murmurs consistent with a ventricular septal defect. On ultrasonography, 1 newborn had a unilateral multicystic/dysplastic kidney and 1 had kidneys that were 2 standard deviations below normal in size. Based on our results routine renal ultrasound studies do not appear to be indicated in full-term newborns exposed to utero to cocaine.
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