Many operational domains require rapid and adaptive responses from individuals, teams, and larger organizational units to address dynamic and unpredictable environmental demands. These create a number of challenges to effective performance and consequently pose many challenges to training theory. This paper presents a framework for conceptualizing these multi-level processes in the context of training theory for team cognitive readiness. We submit that the development of theory for the individual, team, and teamof- teams level, as well as for across levels, is necessary for team cognitive readiness. From this, we can better target the design and test of training methods in support of team cognitive readiness.