OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to prospectively test the hypothesis that a compressed sensing–based slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) turbo spin echo (TSE) pulse sequence prototype facilitates high-resolution metal artifact reduction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cobalt-chromium knee arthroplasty implants within acquisition times of less than 5 minutes, thereby yielding better image quality than high-bandwidth (BW) TSE of similar length and similar image quality than lengthier SEMAC standard of reference pulse sequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was approved by our institutional review board. Twenty asymptomatic subjects (12 men, 8 women; mean age, 56 years; age range, 44–82 years) with total knee arthroplasty implants underwent MRI of the knee using a commercially available, clinical 1.5 T MRI system. Two compressed sensing–accelerated SEMAC prototype pulse sequences with 8-fold undersampling and acquisition times of approximately 5 minutes each were compared with commercially available high-BW and SEMAC pulse sequences with acquisition times of approximately 5 minutes and 11 minutes, respectively. For each pulse sequence type, sagittal intermediate-weighted (TR, 3750–4120 milliseconds; TE, 26–28 milliseconds; voxel size, 0.5 × 0.5 × 3 mm) and short tau inversion recovery (TR, 4010 milliseconds; TE, 5.2–7.5 milliseconds; voxel size, 0.8 × 0.8 × 4 mm) were acquired. Outcome variables included image quality, display of the bone-implant interfaces and pertinent knee structures, artifact size, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Statistical analysis included Friedman, repeated measures analysis of variances, and Cohen weighted k tests. Bonferroni-corrected P values of 0.005 and less were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Image quality, bone-implant interfaces, anatomic structures, artifact size, SNR, and CNR parameters were statistically similar between the compressed sensing–accelerated SEMAC prototype and SEMAC commercial pulse sequences. There was mild blur on images of both SEMAC sequences when compared with high-BW images (P < 0.001), which however did not impair the assessment of knee structures. Metal artifact reduction and visibility of central knee structures and bone-implant interfaces were good to very good and significantly better on both types of SEMAC than on high-BW images (P < 0.004). All 3 pulse sequences showed peripheral structures similarly well. The implant artifact size was 46% to 51% larger on high-BW images when compared with both types of SEMAC images (P < 0.0001). Signal-to-noise ratios and CNRs of fat tissue, tendon tissue, muscle tissue, and fluid were statistically similar on intermediate-weighted MR images of all 3 pulse sequence types. On short tau inversion recovery images, the SNRs of tendon tissue and the CNRs of fat and fluid, fluid and muscle, as well as fluid and tendon were significantly higher on SEMAC and compressed sensing SEMAC images (P < 0.005, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We accept the hypothesis that prospective compressed sensing acceleration of SEMAC is feasible for high-quality metal artifact reduction MRI of cobalt-chromium knee arthroplasty implants in less than 5 minutes and yields better quality than high-BW TSE and similarly high quality than lengthier SEMAC pulse sequences.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging