CKD is a complex comorbid condition with multiple manifestations. It is closely linked with cardiovascular disease and has a very high mortality rate. Currently, it consumes 28% of Medicare expenditures. Complications of CKD include hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, anemia, and bone and mineral disorders. It is underrecognized and underdiagnosed in primary care offices. There is strong evidence that controlling blood pressure, blood glucose, and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in albuminuric patients, as well as referral to the nephrologist when glomerular filtration rate is <30 mL/min/1.73 m 2, is associated with lower mortality, better access to kidney transplantation, improved management of comorbidities, and less frequent use of catheters for dialysis and to lower mortality.
- Primary care
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