Purpose: More than 1 million prostate biopsies are performed annually among Medicare beneficiaries. We determined the risk of serious complications requiring hospitalization. We hypothesized that with emerging multidrug resistant organisms there may be an increasing risk of infectious complications. Materials and Methods: In a 5% random sample of Medicare participants in SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) regions from 1991 to 2007 we compared 30-day hospitalization rates and ICD-9 primary diagnosis codes for admissions between 17,472 men who underwent prostate biopsy and a random sample of 134,977 controls. Multivariate logistic and Poisson regression were used to examine the risk and predictors of serious infectious and noninfectious complications with time. Results: The 30-day hospitalization rate was 6.9% within 30 days of prostate biopsy, which was substantially higher than the 2.7% in the control population. After adjusting for age, race, SEER region, year and comorbidities prostate biopsy was associated with a 2.65-fold (95% CI 2.472.84) increased risk of hospitalization within 30 days compared to the control population (p <0.0001). The risk of infectious complications requiring hospitalization after biopsy was significantly greater in more recent years (ptrend = 0.001). Among men undergoing biopsy, later year, nonwhite race and higher comorbidity scores were significantly associated with an increased risk of infectious complications. Conclusions: The risk of hospitalization within 30 days of prostate biopsy was significantly higher than in a control population. Infectious complications after prostate biopsy have increased in recent years while the rate of serious noninfectious complications is relatively stable. Careful patient selection for prostate biopsy is essential to minimize the potential harms.
- prostatic neoplasms
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