Compliance with the city of chicago's partial ban on menthol cigarette sales

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: In the USA, menthol cigarettes are associated with smoking initiation and decreased likelihood of cessation, particularly for low-income and non-White populations. Local ordinances to restrict menthol cigarette sales are an emergent policy option. In July 2016, Chicago, Illinois became the first major US city to ban menthol cigarette sales within 500 feet of schools. This study assessed ban compliance in June 2017. Methods: We randomly selected 100 of 154 stores within 500 feet of a high school. Ninety stores were included in the analysis, excluding permanently closed stores or stores that did not sell tobacco prior to the ban. Compliance was determined by whether a menthol cigarette pack was purchased. We also assessed presence of menthol cigarette replacement packs. Multivariable logistic regression modelled compliance by store type, school (distance to high school, school type) and neighbourhood-level factors (poverty level, proportion of non-White residents). Results: Compliance rate was 57% (weighted, n=53) and no replacement packs were observed. Non-compliant stores were more likely to advertise menthol cigarettes, but ads were present in eight compliant stores. Gas stations had 81% lower odds (OR=0.19, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.58) of complying with the menthol cigarette ban compared with larger/chain stores. School-level and neighbourhood factors were not associated with compliance. Discussion: The poor compliance observed with Chicago's partial menthol cigarette ban highlights the need for comprehensive efforts. Optimising local resources to target enforcement efforts in gas stations could improve compliance. Ordinances that also restrict advertising could potentially enhance ban impact by reducing exposure to product and promotions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalTobacco Control
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - May 31 2018

Fingerprint

Menthol
ban
Tobacco Products
sales
Compliance
school type
school
Gases
nicotine
smoking
low income
Poverty
promotion
logistics
poverty
resident
Tobacco
regression
Logistic Models
Smoking

Keywords

  • Advertising and promotion
  • Advocacy
  • Disparities
  • Prevention
  • Public policy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

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title = "Compliance with the city of chicago's partial ban on menthol cigarette sales",
abstract = "Introduction: In the USA, menthol cigarettes are associated with smoking initiation and decreased likelihood of cessation, particularly for low-income and non-White populations. Local ordinances to restrict menthol cigarette sales are an emergent policy option. In July 2016, Chicago, Illinois became the first major US city to ban menthol cigarette sales within 500 feet of schools. This study assessed ban compliance in June 2017. Methods: We randomly selected 100 of 154 stores within 500 feet of a high school. Ninety stores were included in the analysis, excluding permanently closed stores or stores that did not sell tobacco prior to the ban. Compliance was determined by whether a menthol cigarette pack was purchased. We also assessed presence of menthol cigarette replacement packs. Multivariable logistic regression modelled compliance by store type, school (distance to high school, school type) and neighbourhood-level factors (poverty level, proportion of non-White residents). Results: Compliance rate was 57{\%} (weighted, n=53) and no replacement packs were observed. Non-compliant stores were more likely to advertise menthol cigarettes, but ads were present in eight compliant stores. Gas stations had 81{\%} lower odds (OR=0.19, 95{\%} CI 0.06 to 0.58) of complying with the menthol cigarette ban compared with larger/chain stores. School-level and neighbourhood factors were not associated with compliance. Discussion: The poor compliance observed with Chicago's partial menthol cigarette ban highlights the need for comprehensive efforts. Optimising local resources to target enforcement efforts in gas stations could improve compliance. Ordinances that also restrict advertising could potentially enhance ban impact by reducing exposure to product and promotions.",
keywords = "Advertising and promotion, Advocacy, Disparities, Prevention, Public policy",
author = "Lauren Czaplicki and Cohen, {Joanna E} and Miranda Jones and Katherine Smith and Helaine Rutkow and Jill Owczarzak",
year = "2018",
month = "5",
day = "31",
doi = "10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054319",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Tobacco Control",
issn = "0964-4563",
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T1 - Compliance with the city of chicago's partial ban on menthol cigarette sales

AU - Czaplicki, Lauren

AU - Cohen, Joanna E

AU - Jones, Miranda

AU - Smith, Katherine

AU - Rutkow, Helaine

AU - Owczarzak, Jill

PY - 2018/5/31

Y1 - 2018/5/31

N2 - Introduction: In the USA, menthol cigarettes are associated with smoking initiation and decreased likelihood of cessation, particularly for low-income and non-White populations. Local ordinances to restrict menthol cigarette sales are an emergent policy option. In July 2016, Chicago, Illinois became the first major US city to ban menthol cigarette sales within 500 feet of schools. This study assessed ban compliance in June 2017. Methods: We randomly selected 100 of 154 stores within 500 feet of a high school. Ninety stores were included in the analysis, excluding permanently closed stores or stores that did not sell tobacco prior to the ban. Compliance was determined by whether a menthol cigarette pack was purchased. We also assessed presence of menthol cigarette replacement packs. Multivariable logistic regression modelled compliance by store type, school (distance to high school, school type) and neighbourhood-level factors (poverty level, proportion of non-White residents). Results: Compliance rate was 57% (weighted, n=53) and no replacement packs were observed. Non-compliant stores were more likely to advertise menthol cigarettes, but ads were present in eight compliant stores. Gas stations had 81% lower odds (OR=0.19, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.58) of complying with the menthol cigarette ban compared with larger/chain stores. School-level and neighbourhood factors were not associated with compliance. Discussion: The poor compliance observed with Chicago's partial menthol cigarette ban highlights the need for comprehensive efforts. Optimising local resources to target enforcement efforts in gas stations could improve compliance. Ordinances that also restrict advertising could potentially enhance ban impact by reducing exposure to product and promotions.

AB - Introduction: In the USA, menthol cigarettes are associated with smoking initiation and decreased likelihood of cessation, particularly for low-income and non-White populations. Local ordinances to restrict menthol cigarette sales are an emergent policy option. In July 2016, Chicago, Illinois became the first major US city to ban menthol cigarette sales within 500 feet of schools. This study assessed ban compliance in June 2017. Methods: We randomly selected 100 of 154 stores within 500 feet of a high school. Ninety stores were included in the analysis, excluding permanently closed stores or stores that did not sell tobacco prior to the ban. Compliance was determined by whether a menthol cigarette pack was purchased. We also assessed presence of menthol cigarette replacement packs. Multivariable logistic regression modelled compliance by store type, school (distance to high school, school type) and neighbourhood-level factors (poverty level, proportion of non-White residents). Results: Compliance rate was 57% (weighted, n=53) and no replacement packs were observed. Non-compliant stores were more likely to advertise menthol cigarettes, but ads were present in eight compliant stores. Gas stations had 81% lower odds (OR=0.19, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.58) of complying with the menthol cigarette ban compared with larger/chain stores. School-level and neighbourhood factors were not associated with compliance. Discussion: The poor compliance observed with Chicago's partial menthol cigarette ban highlights the need for comprehensive efforts. Optimising local resources to target enforcement efforts in gas stations could improve compliance. Ordinances that also restrict advertising could potentially enhance ban impact by reducing exposure to product and promotions.

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