Complement-Based Therapy in the Management of Antibody-Mediated Rejection

Anshul Bhalla, Nada Alachkar, Sami Alasfar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is one of the leading causes of kidney allograft failure and is usually mediated by anti-human leukocyte antigen donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). Activation of classical pathway of the complement system is responsible for downstream effects of DSA and account for significant manifestations of AMR. Currently, the treatment of AMR is based on strategies to remove preformed antibodies or to prevent their production; however, these strategies are often unsuccessful. It is theoretically possible to inhibit complement activity to prevent the effect of DSA on kidney allograft function. Complement inhibitors such as eculizumab, a complement 5 monoclonal antibody, and complement 1 esterase inhibitors (C1 INHs) have been used in prevention and treatment of AMR with variable success. Eculizumab and C1 INH seem to reduce the incidence of early AMR and allow transplantation in highly sensitized kidney transplant recipients, but data on their long-term effect on kidney allograft function are limited. Several case reports described the successful use of eculizumab in the treatment of AMR, but there are no randomized controlled studies that showed efficacy. Treatment of AMR with C1 INH, in addition to standard of care, did not change short-term outcome but long-term studies are underway.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)138-148
Number of pages11
JournalAdvances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Volume27
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2020

Keywords

  • C1 esterase inhibitor
  • Complement
  • Eculizumab
  • Rejection
  • Transplant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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