Compartmental pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the antifungal triazole ravuconazole following intravenous administration of its di-lysine phosphoester prodrug (BMS-379224) in rabbits

Andreas H. Groll, Diana Mickiene, Vidmantas Petraitis, Ruta Petraitiene, Amy Kelaher, Alia Sarafandi, Gudrun Wuerthwein, John Bacher, Thomas J. Walsh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: Ravuconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal triazole in clinical development. We investigated the compartmental plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ravuconazole following administration of its novel intravenous (iv) di-lysine phosphoester prodrug, BMS-379224. Methods: Normal catheterized rabbits received the prodrug at 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg once daily as 5 min iv bolus for 8 days. Serial plasma levels were collected at days 1 and 7, and tissues were obtained 30 min after the eighth dose. Concentrations of ravuconazole were determined by a validated HPLC method. Plasma concentration data were fitted to a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by weighted non-linear least squares regression analysis using the WinNonlin computer program. Results: Following single dosing, ravuconazole demonstrated linear plasma pharmacokinetics across the investigated dosage range. Cmax, AUC0-∞, Vss, CL and terminal half-life (means ± SEM) ranged from 2.03 to 58.82 mg/L, 5.80 to 234.21 mg · h/L, 5.16 to 6.43 L/kg, 0.25 to 0.18 L/h/kg and 20.55 to 26.34 h, respectively. Plasma data after multiple dosing revealed non-linear disposition at the 20 and 40 mg/kg dosage levels as evidenced by a dose-dependent decrease in CL (from 0.104-0.147 to 0.030 and 0.022 L/h/kg; P = 0.1053) and an increase in the dose-normalized AUC0-∞ (from 2.40-3.01 up to 11.90 and 14.56 mg · h/L; P = 0.0382). Tissue concentrations 30 min after the last dose were highest in the liver (12.91-562.68 μg/g), adipose tissue (10.57-938.55 μg/g), lung (5.46-219.12 μg/g), kidney (3.95-252.44 μg/g) and brain tissue (2.37-144.85 μg/g). Conclusions: The pharmacokinetics of ravuconazole fitted best to a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model. The compound revealed non-linear pharmacokinetics at higher dosages, indicating saturable clearance and/or protein binding. Ravuconazole displayed a long elimination half-life and achieved substantial plasma and tissue concentrations including in the brain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)899-907
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Volume56
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2005

Keywords

  • Chemotherapy
  • Drug development
  • Mycoses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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