Comparison of three artificial models of the magnetohydrodynamic effect on the electrocardiogram

Julien Oster, Raul Llinares, Stephen Payne, Zion Tsz Ho Tse, Ehud Jeruham Schmidt, Gari D. Clifford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is often acquired during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but its analysis is restricted by the presence of a strong artefact, called magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect. MHD effect is induced by the flow of electrically charged particles in the blood perpendicular to the static magnetic field, which creates a potential of the order of magnitude of the ECG and temporally coincident with the repolarisation period. In this study, a new MHD model is proposed by using MRI-based 4D blood flow measurements made across the aortic arch. The model is extended to several cardiac cycles to allow the simulation of a realistic ECG acquisition during MRI examination and the quality assessment of MHD suppression techniques. A comparison of two existing models, based, respectively, on an analytical solution and on a numerical method-based solution of the fluids dynamics problem, is made with the proposed model and with an estimate of the MHD voltage observed during a real MRI scan. Results indicate a moderate agreement between the proposed model and the estimated MHD model for most leads, with an average correlation factor of 0.47. However, the results demonstrate that the proposed model provides a closer approximation to the observed MHD effects and a better depiction of the complexity of the MHD effect compared with the previously published models, with an improved correlation ((Formula presented.)), coefficient of determination ((Formula presented.)) and fraction of energy ((Formula presented.)) compared with the best previous model. The source code will be made freely available under an open source licence to facilitate collaboration and allow more rapid development of more accurate models of the MHD effect.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1400-1417
Number of pages18
JournalComputer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Volume18
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 3 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • electrocardiogram
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • magnetohydrodynamic effect
  • modelling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications

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