Comparison of Outcomes in Patients With Nonobstructive, Labile-Obstructive, and Chronically Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Iraklis Pozios, Celia Corona-Villalobos, Lars L. Sorensen, Paco E. Bravo, Marco Canepa, Chiara Pisanello, Aurelio Pinheiro, Veronica L. Dimaano, Hongchang Luo, Zeina Dardari, Xun Zhou, Ihab Kamel, Stefan L. Zimmerman, David A. Bluemke, M. Roselle Abraham, Theodore P. Abraham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Patients with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) are considered low risk, generally not requiring aggressive intervention. However, nonobstructive and labile-obstructive HC have been traditionally classified together, and it is unknown if these 2 subgroups have distinct risk profiles. We compared cardiovascular outcomes in 293 patients HC (96 nonobstructive, 114 labile-obstructive, and 83 obstructive) referred for exercise echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging and followed for 3.3 ± 3.6 years. A subgroup (34 nonobstructive, 28 labile-obstructive, 21 obstructive) underwent positron emission tomography. The mean number of sudden cardiac death risk factors was similar among groups (nonobstructive: 1.4 vs labile-obstructive: 1.2 vs obstructive: 1.4 risk factors, p = 0.2). Prevalence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was similar across groups but more non-obstructive patients had late gadolinium enhancement ≥20% of myocardial mass (23 [30%] vs 19 [18%] labile-obstructive and 8 [11%] obstructive, p = 0.01]. Fewer labile-obstructive patients had regional positron emission tomography perfusion abnormalities (12 [46%] vs nonobstructive 30 [81%] and obstructive 17 [85%], p = 0.003]. During follow-up, 60 events were recorded (36 ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation, including 30 defibrillator discharges, 12 heart failure worsening, and 2 deaths). Nonobstructive patients were at greater risk of VT/VF at follow-up, compared to labile obstructive (hazed ratio 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.84, p = 0.03) and the risk persisted after adjusting for age, gender, syncope, family history of sudden cardiac death, abnormal blood pressure response, and septum ≥3 cm (p = 0.04). Appropriate defibrillator discharges were more frequent in nonobstructive (8 [18%]) compared to labile-obstructive (0 [0%], p = 0.02) patients. In conclusion, nonobstructive hemodynamics is associated with more pronounced fibrosis and ischemia than labile-obstructive and is an independent predictor of VT/VF in HC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number21246
Pages (from-to)938-944
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Volume116
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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