Comparison of Clinical Features in Blacks Versus Whites with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Lars L. Sorensen, Aurelio Pinheiro, Veronica Lea Dimaano, Iraklis Pozios, Alexandra Nowbar, Hongyun Liu, Hong Chang Luo, Xiaoping Lin, Niels T. Olsen, Thomas F. Hansen, Peter Sogaard, Maria R. Abraham, Theodore P. Abraham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


To date, there has not been a large systematic examination of the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) phenotype in blacks versus whites. In this study, we investigate differences in presentation of HC between blacks and whites. We included 441 consecutive patients with HC seen at the Johns Hopkins HC clinic in the period from February 2005 to June 2012. We compared 76 blacks for clinical presentation, electrocardiogram, exercise capacity, left ventricular morphology, and hemodynamics by echocardiography to 365 whites. Black patients with HC more often presented with abnormal electrocardiogram (93% vs 80%, p = 0.009), driven by a significant difference in repolarization abnormalities (79% vs 56%, p <0.001). Apical hypertrophy was more common in blacks (26% vs 9%, p <0.001); however, blacks had less severe systolic anterior movement of the mitral valve and had significantly lower left ventricular outflow tract gradients at rest (9 mm Hg; interquartile range [IQR] 7 to 19 vs 16 mm Hg; IQR 8 to 40, p <0.001) and during provocation (36 mm Hg; IQR 16 to 77 vs 59 mm Hg; IQR 26 to 110, p = 0.002). Despite the nonobstructive pathophysiology, blacks had lower exercise capacity (adjusted difference 1.45 metabolic equivalents [0.45 to 2.45], p = 0.005). In conclusion, blacks have an HC phenotype characterized by lower prevalence of the well-recognized echocardiographic features of HC such as systolic anterior movement of the mitral valve and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and display worse exercise capacity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1815-1820
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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