Comparison of ChitoFlex®, CELOX™, and QuikClot® in control of hemorrhage

John J. Devlin, Sara Kircher, Buddy G. Kozen, Lanny F. Littlejohn, Andrew S. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Exsanguinating extremity wounds remain the primary source of battlefield mortality. Operating forces employ three agents in Iraq: HemCon® (HemCon Medical Technologies, Inc., Portland, OR), QuikClot® (Z-Medica Corporation, Wallingford, CT), and CELOX™ (SAM Medical, Tualatin, OR). Anecdotal reports suggest that these agents are less useful on small entrance, linear-tract injuries. ChitoFlex® (HemCon Medical Technologies, Inc., Portland, OR) has been introduced but is untested. Study Objectives: To compare the equivalency of the ChitoFlex® dressing, QuikClot® ACS+™ dressing, CELOX™, and standard gauze in their effectiveness to control bleeding from non-cavitary groin wounds. Methods: Forty-eight swine were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: standard gauze dressing (SD), ChitoFlex® dressing (CF), QuikClot® ACS+™ dressing (QC), and CELOX™ dressing (CX). A groin injury with limited vessel access was created in each animal. Subjects were resuscitated with 500 mL of hetastarch. The primary endpoint was 180-min survival. Secondary endpoints included total blood loss in mL/kg, incidence of re-bleeding, survival times among the animals that did not survive for 180 min, failure to achieve initial hemostasis, incidence of recurrent bleeding, time to initial re-bleeding, amount of re-bleeding, and mass of residual hematoma. Results: Survival occurred in 10 of 12 SD animals, 10 of 12 CF animals, 10 of 12 QC animals, and 9 of 12 CX animals. No statistically significant difference was found. Conclusion: In our study of limited-access extremity bleeding, ChitoFlex® performed equally well in mitigating blood loss and promoting survival. The ChitoFlex® dressing is an equally effective alternative to currently available hemostatic agents. However, no agents were superior to standard gauze in our model of limited access.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)237-245
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Emergency Medicine
Volume41
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2011

Keywords

  • combat
  • hemorrhage
  • hemostatic agent
  • swine
  • trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine

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