Chronic inflammation is an underlying etiological factor in carcinogenesis; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and their chemically modified NO-releasing prodrugs (NO-NSAIDs) are promising chemopreventive agents. The aim of this study was to conduct a head-to-head comparison between two NO-ASAs possessing different NO donor groups, an organic nitrate [3-nitrooxyphenyl acetylsalicylate (NO-ASA; NCX-4016)] and an N-diazeniumdiolate [NONO-ASA, O 2- (acetylsalicyloxymethyl)-1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2- diolate (NONO-ASA; CVM-01)], as antiulcerogenic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic agents. All drugs were administered orally at equimolar doses. For antiulcerogenic study, 6 h after administration, the number and size of hemorrhagic lesions in stomachs from euthanized animals were counted. Tissue samples were frozen for prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde determination. For anti-inflammatory study, 1 h after drug administration, the volume of carrageenan-induced rat paw edemas was measured for 6 h. For antipyretic study, 1 h after dosing, fever was induced by intraperitoneal LPS, and body core temperatures measured for 5 h. For analgesic study, time-dependent analgesic effect of prodrugs was evaluated by carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Drugs were administered 30 min after carrageenan. NO-ASA and NONO-ASA were equipotent as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents but were better than aspirin. Despite a drastic reduction of PGE 2 in stomach tissue, both prodrugs were devoid of gastric side effects. Lipid peroxidation induced by aspirin was higher than that observed by prodrugs. SOD activity induced by both prodrugs was similar, but approximately 2-fold higher than that induced by aspirin. CVM-01 is as effective as NCX-4016 in anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic assays in vivo, and it showed an equivalent safety profile in the stomach. These results underscore the use of N-diazeniumdiolate moieties in drug design.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|State||Published - Nov 2010|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine