Comparing the efficacy of adipose-derived and bone marrow-derived cells in a rat model of posterolateral lumbar fusion

Christina Holmes, Wataru Ishida, Alexander Perdomo-Pantoja, Benjamin Elder, Ethan Cottrill, John Locke, Timothy F. Witham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMCs) have been widely used in spinal fusion procedures, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) offer a number of advantages as an alternative clinical cell source. This study directly compares the efficacy of ASCs and BMCs from the same donor animals to achieve successful fusion when combined with a clinical-grade bone graft substitute in a rat lumbar fusion model. ASCs and BMCs were isolated from the same Lewis donor rats and grown to passage 2 (P2). Single-level bilateral posterolateral intertransverse process lumbar fusion surgery was performed on syngeneic rats divided into three experimental groups: clinical-grade bone graft substitute alone (CBGS); CBGS+ rat ASCs (rASC); and, CBGS+ rat BMCs (rBMC). Eight weeks postoperatively, fusion was evaluated via micro-CT, manual palpation and histology. In vitro analysis of the osteogenic capacity of rBMCs and rASCs was also performed. Results indicated that the average fusion volume in the rASC group was the largest and was significantly larger than the CBGS group. Although the rASC group displayed the highest fusion rates via micro-CT and manual palpation, this difference was not statistically significant. Cell-seeded grafts showed more histological bone formation than cell-free grafts. P2 rASCs and rBMCs displayed similar in vitro osteogenic differentiation capacities. Overall, this study showed that, when combined with a clinical-grade bone graft substitute in a rat model, rASCs cells yielded the largest fusion masses and comparable fusion results to rBMCs. These results add to growing evidence that ASCs provide an attractive alternative to BMCs for spinal fusion procedures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Research
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • adipose stem cell
  • animal model
  • bone marrow cell
  • mesenchymal stem cell
  • spine fusion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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