Comparing adaptive stepped care and monetary-based voucher interventions for opioid dependence

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This 6-month randomized clinical trial (with 3-month follow-up) used a 2 × 2 design to compare the independent and combined effectiveness of two interventions designed to improve outcomes in treatment-seeking opioid dependent patients (n = 236): motivated stepped care (MSC) and contingent voucher incentives (CVI). MSC is an adaptive treatment strategy that uses principles of negative reinforcement and avoidance to motivate both attendance to varying levels of counseling services and brief periods of abstinence [Brooner, R.K., Kidorf, M., 2002. Using behavioral reinforcement to improve methadone treatment participation. Sci. Pract. Perspect. 1, 38-46; Brooner, R.K., Kidorf, M.S., King, V.L., Peirce, J.M., Bigelow, G.E., Kolodner, K., 2004. A modified "stepped care" approach to improve attendance behavior in treatment seeking opioid abusers. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 27, 223-232]. In contrast, CVI [Higgins, S., Delaney, D.D., Budney, A.J., Bickel, W.K., Hughes, J.R., Foerg, B.A., Fenwick, J.W., 1991. A behavioral approach to achieving initial cocaine abstinence. Am. Psychiatr. 148, 1218-1224] relies on positive reinforcement to motivate drug abstinence. The results showed that the combined approach (MSC + CVI) was associated with the highest proportion of drug-negative urine samples during both the randomized and 3-month follow-up arms of the evaluation. The CVI-only and the MSC-only conditions evidenced similar proportions of drug-negative urine samples that were both significantly greater than the standard care (SC) comparison group. Voucher-based reinforcement was associated with better retention, while adaptive stepped-based care was associated with better adherence to scheduled counseling sessions. These results suggest that both CVI and MSC are more effective than routine care for reducing drug use in opioid dependent outpatients, and that the overall benefits of MSC are enhanced further by adding positive reinforcement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume88
Issue numberSUPPL. 2
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2007

Fingerprint

Opioid Analgesics
Motivation
Reinforcement
reinforcement
Pharmaceutical Preparations
incentive
Counseling
Urine
Methadone
drug
Cocaine
Outpatients
Therapeutics
Randomized Controlled Trials
Reinforcement (Psychology)
counseling session
drug use
counseling
abuse
participation

Keywords

  • Adaptive care
  • Behavioral reinforcement
  • Methadone
  • Opioid dependence
  • Stepped care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Toxicology
  • Health(social science)

Cite this

@article{3ce86c457c40468288c466d8b00b9816,
title = "Comparing adaptive stepped care and monetary-based voucher interventions for opioid dependence",
abstract = "This 6-month randomized clinical trial (with 3-month follow-up) used a 2 × 2 design to compare the independent and combined effectiveness of two interventions designed to improve outcomes in treatment-seeking opioid dependent patients (n = 236): motivated stepped care (MSC) and contingent voucher incentives (CVI). MSC is an adaptive treatment strategy that uses principles of negative reinforcement and avoidance to motivate both attendance to varying levels of counseling services and brief periods of abstinence [Brooner, R.K., Kidorf, M., 2002. Using behavioral reinforcement to improve methadone treatment participation. Sci. Pract. Perspect. 1, 38-46; Brooner, R.K., Kidorf, M.S., King, V.L., Peirce, J.M., Bigelow, G.E., Kolodner, K., 2004. A modified {"}stepped care{"} approach to improve attendance behavior in treatment seeking opioid abusers. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 27, 223-232]. In contrast, CVI [Higgins, S., Delaney, D.D., Budney, A.J., Bickel, W.K., Hughes, J.R., Foerg, B.A., Fenwick, J.W., 1991. A behavioral approach to achieving initial cocaine abstinence. Am. Psychiatr. 148, 1218-1224] relies on positive reinforcement to motivate drug abstinence. The results showed that the combined approach (MSC + CVI) was associated with the highest proportion of drug-negative urine samples during both the randomized and 3-month follow-up arms of the evaluation. The CVI-only and the MSC-only conditions evidenced similar proportions of drug-negative urine samples that were both significantly greater than the standard care (SC) comparison group. Voucher-based reinforcement was associated with better retention, while adaptive stepped-based care was associated with better adherence to scheduled counseling sessions. These results suggest that both CVI and MSC are more effective than routine care for reducing drug use in opioid dependent outpatients, and that the overall benefits of MSC are enhanced further by adding positive reinforcement.",
keywords = "Adaptive care, Behavioral reinforcement, Methadone, Opioid dependence, Stepped care",
author = "Robert Brooner and Michael Kidorf and King, {Van L.} and Kenneth Stoller and Neufeld, {Karin Jane} and Ken Kolodner",
year = "2007",
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language = "English (US)",
volume = "88",
journal = "Drug and Alcohol Dependence",
issn = "0376-8716",
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T1 - Comparing adaptive stepped care and monetary-based voucher interventions for opioid dependence

AU - Brooner, Robert

AU - Kidorf, Michael

AU - King, Van L.

AU - Stoller, Kenneth

AU - Neufeld, Karin Jane

AU - Kolodner, Ken

PY - 2007/5

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N2 - This 6-month randomized clinical trial (with 3-month follow-up) used a 2 × 2 design to compare the independent and combined effectiveness of two interventions designed to improve outcomes in treatment-seeking opioid dependent patients (n = 236): motivated stepped care (MSC) and contingent voucher incentives (CVI). MSC is an adaptive treatment strategy that uses principles of negative reinforcement and avoidance to motivate both attendance to varying levels of counseling services and brief periods of abstinence [Brooner, R.K., Kidorf, M., 2002. Using behavioral reinforcement to improve methadone treatment participation. Sci. Pract. Perspect. 1, 38-46; Brooner, R.K., Kidorf, M.S., King, V.L., Peirce, J.M., Bigelow, G.E., Kolodner, K., 2004. A modified "stepped care" approach to improve attendance behavior in treatment seeking opioid abusers. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 27, 223-232]. In contrast, CVI [Higgins, S., Delaney, D.D., Budney, A.J., Bickel, W.K., Hughes, J.R., Foerg, B.A., Fenwick, J.W., 1991. A behavioral approach to achieving initial cocaine abstinence. Am. Psychiatr. 148, 1218-1224] relies on positive reinforcement to motivate drug abstinence. The results showed that the combined approach (MSC + CVI) was associated with the highest proportion of drug-negative urine samples during both the randomized and 3-month follow-up arms of the evaluation. The CVI-only and the MSC-only conditions evidenced similar proportions of drug-negative urine samples that were both significantly greater than the standard care (SC) comparison group. Voucher-based reinforcement was associated with better retention, while adaptive stepped-based care was associated with better adherence to scheduled counseling sessions. These results suggest that both CVI and MSC are more effective than routine care for reducing drug use in opioid dependent outpatients, and that the overall benefits of MSC are enhanced further by adding positive reinforcement.

AB - This 6-month randomized clinical trial (with 3-month follow-up) used a 2 × 2 design to compare the independent and combined effectiveness of two interventions designed to improve outcomes in treatment-seeking opioid dependent patients (n = 236): motivated stepped care (MSC) and contingent voucher incentives (CVI). MSC is an adaptive treatment strategy that uses principles of negative reinforcement and avoidance to motivate both attendance to varying levels of counseling services and brief periods of abstinence [Brooner, R.K., Kidorf, M., 2002. Using behavioral reinforcement to improve methadone treatment participation. Sci. Pract. Perspect. 1, 38-46; Brooner, R.K., Kidorf, M.S., King, V.L., Peirce, J.M., Bigelow, G.E., Kolodner, K., 2004. A modified "stepped care" approach to improve attendance behavior in treatment seeking opioid abusers. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 27, 223-232]. In contrast, CVI [Higgins, S., Delaney, D.D., Budney, A.J., Bickel, W.K., Hughes, J.R., Foerg, B.A., Fenwick, J.W., 1991. A behavioral approach to achieving initial cocaine abstinence. Am. Psychiatr. 148, 1218-1224] relies on positive reinforcement to motivate drug abstinence. The results showed that the combined approach (MSC + CVI) was associated with the highest proportion of drug-negative urine samples during both the randomized and 3-month follow-up arms of the evaluation. The CVI-only and the MSC-only conditions evidenced similar proportions of drug-negative urine samples that were both significantly greater than the standard care (SC) comparison group. Voucher-based reinforcement was associated with better retention, while adaptive stepped-based care was associated with better adherence to scheduled counseling sessions. These results suggest that both CVI and MSC are more effective than routine care for reducing drug use in opioid dependent outpatients, and that the overall benefits of MSC are enhanced further by adding positive reinforcement.

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