Objective: To compare the factor structure of 6 short forms of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) by means of confirmatory factor analysis in patients after spinal surgery for degenerative conditions. Design: A cross-sectional survey study. Setting: University-based surgical clinic. Participants: Adults (N=137) treated by spinal surgery for a degenerative condition (ie, spinal stenosis, spondylosis with or without myelopathy, and spondylolisthesis). Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Patients completed the TSK within 3 months of hospital discharge. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the 2-factor models of the TSK-13 and TSK-11 had a reasonable fit for the data, with internal consistency values >.70. A 1-factor TSK-4 (items 3, 6, 7, and 11) demonstrated an excellent fit for the data, but an adequate internal consistency was not maintained. A poor fit was noted for the 1-factor models of the TSK-13 and TSK-11, and a 4-item TSK (items 1, 2, 9, and 11). Conclusions: The current study provides further evidence that specific short-form versions of the TSK may be useful for assessing fear of movement in surgical populations. Results support the measurement of fear of movement using the 2-factor, 13- and 11-item versions of the TSK in patients after spinal surgery. A TSK-4 (items 3, 6, 7, and 11) offers a promising alternative to the TSK-13 and TSK-11. However, further research is needed to test the validity and reliability of the TSK-4 in patients undergoing spinal surgery in order to support its use in a clinical environment. Researchers and clinicians interested in a shorter measure of fear of movement should consider using the TSK-11.
- Factor analysis
- Postoperative period
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation