Race has seldomly been reported in the major clinical trials of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). When described, African Americans (AAs) were substantially under-represented. This study sought to compare reverse ventricular remodeling and long-term outcomes in AAs versus European Americans (EAs) with advanced heart failure who underwent CRT. We extracted demographic (including race), clinical, and echocardiographic data on patients with advanced heart failure who underwent CRT with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35% and a QRS duration ≥120 ms. Long-term outcomes were compared between AAs and EAs. In patients in whom follow-up echocardiograms were available, improvement in LVEF (defined as an absolute improvement ≥5%) was compared between races. From a cohort of 662 patients, there were 88 AAs and 574 EAs. At a mean follow-up of 5.0 ± 2.5 years, survival rate free of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and heart transplant was 54.5% for AAs and 53.8% for EAs (log-rank p = 0.997). In multivariate analysis, there was no difference in survival free of heart transplant or LVAD based on race (hazard ratio 1.1 [0.74 to 1.56], p = 0.72, EAs race as referent); 424 patients had a follow-up echocardiogram (55.4% EAs and 64.7% AAs). In multivariate analysis, there was no difference in the incidence of response based on race (1.1 [0.6 to 2.1, p = 0.80], EAs as referent). AAs derive similar benefits with CRT compared with EAs in terms of improvement in LVEF and long-term survival free of LVAD and heart transplant.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine