Purpose: Although proton beam therapy (PBT) is a rapidly expanding modality to treat prostate cancer compared with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), data comparing disease control outcomes and patterns of failure in the postprostatectomy setting remain substantially limited. Methods and Materials: All patients who underwent postoperative IMRT or PBT to the prostate bed only at a single institution were included (2009-2017). Endpoints included biochemical failure (BF; using institutional and recent cooperative group trial definitions), local failure (LF), regional failure (RF), distant failure (DF), and all-cause mortality. A case-matched cohort analysis was performed using 3-to-1 nearest-neighbor matching; multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling (MVA) estimated hazard ratios for disease-related outcomes by treatment modality. Results: Of 295 men, 260 were matched (n = 65 PBT, 195 IMRT); after matching, only age at diagnosis (P < .01) significantly differed between cohorts. At a median follow-up of 59 months, BF (institution-defined), LF, RF, DF, and mortality rates were 45% (n = 29), 2% (n = 1), 9% (n = 6), 9% (n = 6), and 2% (n = 1) for PBT, and 41% (n = 80), 3% (n = 5), 7% (n = 13), 9% (n = 18), and 5% (n = 9) for IMRT (all P > .05). RT modality was not significantly associated with BF on MVA using institutional or cooperative group definitions (all P > .05), nor with LF (P = .82), RF (P = .11), DF (P = .36), or all-cause mortality (P = .69). Patterns of failure were qualitatively similar between cohorts (DF: bone, retroperitoneal nodes, lung). Conclusions: In this single institution, case-matched analysis, PBT yielded similar long-term disease-related outcomes and patterns of failure to IMRT in the postprostatectomy setting.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging