Purpose: Histone deactylase inhibitors (HDACi) are a promising new class of anticancer therapeutics; however, little is known about HDACi activity in soft tissue sarcoma (STS), a heterogeneous cohort of mesenchymal origin malignancies. Consequently, we investigated the novel HDACi PCI-24781, alone/in combination with conventional chemotherapy, to determine its potential anti-STS-related effects and the underlying mechanisms involved. Experimental Design: Immunoblotting was used to evaluate the effects of PCI-24781 on histone and nonhistone protein acetylation and expression of potential downstream targets. Cell culture-based assays were utilized to assess the effects of PCI-24781 on STS cell growth, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and chemosensitivity. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and reporter assays helped elucidate molecular mechanisms resulting in PCI-24781-induced Rad51 repression. The effect of PCI-24781, alone or with chemotherapy, on tumor and metastatic growth was tested in vivo using human STS xenograft models. Results: PCI-24781 exhibited significant anti-STS proliferative activity in vitro, inducing S phase depletion, G2/M cell cycle arrest, and increasing apoptosis. Superior effects were seen when combined with chemotherapy. A PCI-24781-induced reduction in Rad51, a major mediator of DNA double-strand break homologous recombination repair, was shown and may be a mechanism underlying PCI-24781 chemosensitization. We showed that PCI-24781 transcriptionally represses Rad51 through an E2F binding-site on the Rad51 proximal promoter. Although single-agent PCI-24781 had modest effects on STS growth and metastasis, marked inhibition was observed when combined with chemotherapy. Conclusions: In light of these findings, this novel molecular-based combination may be applicable to multiple STS histologic subtypes, and potentially merits rigorous evaluation in human STS clinical trials.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research