Combined therapy for diabetic macular edema

Saba Al Rashaed, J. Fernando Arevalo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the main cause of visual impairment in diabetic patients. Macular edema within 1 disk diameter of the fovea is present in 9% of the diabetic population. The management of DME is complex and often multiple treatment approaches are needed. This review demonstrates the benefits of intravitreal triamcinolone, bevacizumab and ranibizumab as adjunctive therapy to macular laser treatment in DME. The published results indicate that intravitreal injections of these agents may have a beneficial effect on macular thickness and visual acuity, independent of the type of macular edema that is present. Therefore, pharmacotherapy could complement focal/grid laser photocoagulation in the management of DME. For this review, we performed a literature search and summarized recent findings regarding combined therapy for DME.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)315-320
Number of pages6
JournalMiddle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2013


  • Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • Diabetic Macular Edema
  • Macular Laser Photocoagulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Combined therapy for diabetic macular edema'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this