Combined ionic direct current and pulse frequency modulation improves the dynamic range of vestibular canal stimulation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Vestibular prostheses emulate normal vestibular function by electrically stimulating the semicircular canals using pulse frequency modulation (PFM). Spontaneous activity at the vestibular nerve may limit the dynamic range elicited by PFM. One proposed solution is the co-application of ionic direct current (iDC) to inhibit this spontaneous activity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the hypothesis that a tonic iDC baseline delivered in conjunction with PFM to the vestibular semicircular canals could improve the dynamic range of evoked eye responses. METHODS: Gentamicin-treated chinchillas were implanted with microcatheter electrodes in the vestibular semicircular canals through which pulsatile and iDC current was delivered. PFM was used to modulate vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) once it was adapted to a preset iDC and pulse-frequency baseline. Responses to stimulation were assessed by recording the evoked VOR eye direction and velocity. RESULTS: PFM produced VOR responses aligned to the stimulated canal. Introduction of an iDC baseline lead to a small but statistically significant increase in eye response velocity, without influencing the direction of eye rotation. CONCLUSIONS: Tonic iDC baselines increase the dynamic range of encoding head velocity evoked by pulsatile stimulation, potentially via the inhibition of spontaneous activity in the vestibular nerve.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)89-96
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium and Orientation
Volume29
Issue number2-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex
Semicircular Canals
Vestibular Nerve
Chinchilla
Gentamicins
Prostheses and Implants
Electrodes
Head
Direction compound

Keywords

  • direct current
  • electrical stimulation
  • neural implant
  • vestibular prosthesis
  • Vestibular system
  • vestibulo-ocular reflex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

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title = "Combined ionic direct current and pulse frequency modulation improves the dynamic range of vestibular canal stimulation",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Vestibular prostheses emulate normal vestibular function by electrically stimulating the semicircular canals using pulse frequency modulation (PFM). Spontaneous activity at the vestibular nerve may limit the dynamic range elicited by PFM. One proposed solution is the co-application of ionic direct current (iDC) to inhibit this spontaneous activity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the hypothesis that a tonic iDC baseline delivered in conjunction with PFM to the vestibular semicircular canals could improve the dynamic range of evoked eye responses. METHODS: Gentamicin-treated chinchillas were implanted with microcatheter electrodes in the vestibular semicircular canals through which pulsatile and iDC current was delivered. PFM was used to modulate vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) once it was adapted to a preset iDC and pulse-frequency baseline. Responses to stimulation were assessed by recording the evoked VOR eye direction and velocity. RESULTS: PFM produced VOR responses aligned to the stimulated canal. Introduction of an iDC baseline lead to a small but statistically significant increase in eye response velocity, without influencing the direction of eye rotation. CONCLUSIONS: Tonic iDC baselines increase the dynamic range of encoding head velocity evoked by pulsatile stimulation, potentially via the inhibition of spontaneous activity in the vestibular nerve.",
keywords = "direct current, electrical stimulation, neural implant, vestibular prosthesis, Vestibular system, vestibulo-ocular reflex",
author = "Aplin, {F. P.} and D. Singh and {Della Santina}, {Charles Coleman} and Fridman, {Gene Y}",
year = "2019",
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doi = "10.3233/VES-190651",
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T1 - Combined ionic direct current and pulse frequency modulation improves the dynamic range of vestibular canal stimulation

AU - Aplin, F. P.

AU - Singh, D.

AU - Della Santina, Charles Coleman

AU - Fridman, Gene Y

PY - 2019/1/1

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Vestibular prostheses emulate normal vestibular function by electrically stimulating the semicircular canals using pulse frequency modulation (PFM). Spontaneous activity at the vestibular nerve may limit the dynamic range elicited by PFM. One proposed solution is the co-application of ionic direct current (iDC) to inhibit this spontaneous activity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the hypothesis that a tonic iDC baseline delivered in conjunction with PFM to the vestibular semicircular canals could improve the dynamic range of evoked eye responses. METHODS: Gentamicin-treated chinchillas were implanted with microcatheter electrodes in the vestibular semicircular canals through which pulsatile and iDC current was delivered. PFM was used to modulate vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) once it was adapted to a preset iDC and pulse-frequency baseline. Responses to stimulation were assessed by recording the evoked VOR eye direction and velocity. RESULTS: PFM produced VOR responses aligned to the stimulated canal. Introduction of an iDC baseline lead to a small but statistically significant increase in eye response velocity, without influencing the direction of eye rotation. CONCLUSIONS: Tonic iDC baselines increase the dynamic range of encoding head velocity evoked by pulsatile stimulation, potentially via the inhibition of spontaneous activity in the vestibular nerve.

AB - BACKGROUND: Vestibular prostheses emulate normal vestibular function by electrically stimulating the semicircular canals using pulse frequency modulation (PFM). Spontaneous activity at the vestibular nerve may limit the dynamic range elicited by PFM. One proposed solution is the co-application of ionic direct current (iDC) to inhibit this spontaneous activity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the hypothesis that a tonic iDC baseline delivered in conjunction with PFM to the vestibular semicircular canals could improve the dynamic range of evoked eye responses. METHODS: Gentamicin-treated chinchillas were implanted with microcatheter electrodes in the vestibular semicircular canals through which pulsatile and iDC current was delivered. PFM was used to modulate vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) once it was adapted to a preset iDC and pulse-frequency baseline. Responses to stimulation were assessed by recording the evoked VOR eye direction and velocity. RESULTS: PFM produced VOR responses aligned to the stimulated canal. Introduction of an iDC baseline lead to a small but statistically significant increase in eye response velocity, without influencing the direction of eye rotation. CONCLUSIONS: Tonic iDC baselines increase the dynamic range of encoding head velocity evoked by pulsatile stimulation, potentially via the inhibition of spontaneous activity in the vestibular nerve.

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