re are very few tumor types for which chemorapy regimens are regularly curative; notable exceptions include testicular cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma. In both cases combination chemorapy approaches are required. Thus, it would seem only logical that combination immunorapy approaches will be required to induce long-term remissions in majority of cancer patients. Immune checkpoint blockade can be combined with several or interventions, including radiation rapy, chemorapy and cancer vaccines. However, observation that T cells that are rendered not-responsive or "exhausted" by recognition of tumor antigens express multiple non-overlapping checkpoint molecules suggests that immunorapy approaches in which multiple checkpoint molecules are blocked may be particularly active in clinic.
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