Combination therapy with lenalidomide and nanoceria ameliorates CNS autoimmunity

Erez Eitan, Emmette R. Hutchison, Nigel H. Greig, David Tweedie, Hasan Celik, Soumita Ghosh, Kenneth W. Fishbein, Richard G. Spencer, Carl Y. Sasaki, Paritosh Ghosh, Soumen Das, Susheela Chigurapati, James Raymick, Sumit Sarkar, Srinivasulu Chigurupati, Sudipta Seal, Mark P. Mattson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating neurological disorder involving an autoimmune reaction to oligodendrocytes and degeneration of the axons they ensheath in the CNS. Because the damage to oligodendrocytes and axons involves local inflammation and associated oxidative stress, we tested the therapeutic efficacy of combined treatment with a potent anti-inflammatory thalidomide analog (lenalidomide) and novel synthetic anti-oxidant cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to a control (no EAE) group, or one of the four myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE groups: vehicle, lenalidomide, nanoceria, or lenalidomide plus nanoceria. During a 23. day period, clinical EAE symptoms were evaluated daily, and MRI brain scans were performed at 11-13. days and 20-22. days. Histological and biochemical analyses of brain tissue samples were performed to quantify myelin loss and local inflammation. Results: Lenalidomide treatment alone delayed symptom onset, while nanoceria treatment had no effect on symptom onset or severity, but did promote recovery; lenalidomide and nanoceria each significantly attenuated white matter pathology and associated inflammation. Combined treatment with lenalidomide and nanoceria resulted in a near elimination of EAE symptoms, and reduced white matter pathology and inflammatory cell responses to a much greater extent than either treatment alone. Interpretation: By suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress, combined treatment with lenalidomide and nanoceria can reduce demyelination and associated neurological symptoms in EAE mice. Our preclinical data suggest a potential application of this combination therapy in MS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)151-160
Number of pages10
JournalExperimental Neurology
StatePublished - Nov 1 2015


  • Cerebral ventricles
  • Cerium oxide nanoparticles
  • Demyelination
  • EAE
  • Multiple sclerosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Developmental Neuroscience


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