Background. Acute transplant glomerulitis is a unique lesion in renal allografts, the prognostic significance of which is controversial. We conducted this retrospective cohort study to examine the independent prognostic significance of moderate-to-severe transplant glomerulitis in acute rejection. Methods. Renal allograft survival for patients with acute rejection were studied, comparing one group with significant glomerulitis (G, n=28) with those with no glomerulitis (NG, n=35). Clinical, biopsy, and demographic data and renal graft survival were compared, and the association of G with graft failure was examined. Results. In the G versus NG group, a greater percentage of patients were highly sensitized (peak panel reactive antibody value >80%; P=0.009), had had a previous renal transplant (40% vs. 11%; P=0.02), or had suffered from delayed graft function (P=0.03). The G group had a trend toward earlier rejection episodes (P=0.07), a significantly higher serum creatinine at the time of index biopsy (P=0.01), a higher prevalence of vascular rejection (P=0.02), and less improvement in mean reciprocal serum creatinine at 1-2 weeks after biopsy (P=0.02). Although there was a trend toward shorter allograft survival in the G group (P=0.09), the level of significance of which increased with adjustment for transplantation time period and the duration of the transplant-biopsy interval (P=0.06), the relative risk for graft loss was no longer significant when additionally adjusted for index biopsy Banff score (relative risk, 0.97; P=0.97). Conclusion. In this study, G was significantly more common in highly sensitized patients and was strongly associated with vascular rejection biopsies but was not an independent predictor of graft survival.
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