Background: Whether carotid artery disease is a cause of cognitive impairment in persons who have not had stroke is unknown. If this is the case, diminished performance on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination should be more common in persons with left carotid artery disease than in those with right carotid artery disease. Objective: To determine whether left carotid artery disease is associated with cognitive impairment. Design: Cross-sectional and cohort study. Setting: Four U.S. communities participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Patients: 4006 right-handed men and women 65 years of age or older without history of stroke, transient ischemic attack, or carotid endarterectomy. Measurements: internal carotid artery stenosis and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery were assessed by using duplex ultrasonography. Cognitive impairment was defined as a score less than 80 on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination, and cognitive decline was defined as an average decrease of more than 1 point annually in Modified Mini-Mental State Examination score during up to 5 years of follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk for cognitive impairment and decline associated with left internal carotid artery stenosis and intima-media thickness, after adjustment for measures of right-sided disease and risk factors for vascular disease. Results: After adjustment for right-sided stenosis, high-grade (≥75% narrowing of diameter) stenosis of the left internal carotid artery (32 patients) was associated with cognitive impairment (odds ratio, 6.7 [95% CI, 2.4 to 18.1] compared with no stenosis) and cognitive decline (odds ratio, 2.6 [CI, 1.1 to 6.3]). Intima-media thickness of the left common carotid artery was associated with cognitive impairment and decline in univariate analysis, but this effect did not persist after adjustment. Conclusions: Cognitive impairment and decline are associated with asymptomatic high-grade stenosis of the left internal carotid artery. The persistence of the association after adjustment for right-sided stenosis indicates that the association is not due to underlying vascular risk factors or atherosclerosis in general.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Annals of internal medicine|
|State||Published - Feb 17 2004|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine